Intraoperative neurological monitoring
Nowadays ( ) is an essential part of many surgical procedures. Cost-effectiveness analysis supports facial nerve monitoring in mastoid and . Innovative methods of cranial nerve monitoring using techniques such as intraoperative F wave and transcranial electric motor evoked potential measurement are being investigated but have yet to be widely adopted in . The latter technique is used in and and provides the advantage of not relying on the irritating stimulus of the nerve, but rather a stimulation of the cerebral cortex. Their use may be limited by the requirement for only intravenous anesthetic agents because of the suppression of the signal when inhalational agents are used.